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Foam Generation and Stability

Foam Generation and Stability

A foam is a colloidal dispersion in which a gas is dispersed in a continuous liquid phase. Many examples of foams in industry and everyday life can be found easily such as shampoo, bubble bath, dishwater detergent, cleaner, laundry, coffee, beer, beverages, soda, mining process, oil recovery, environment remedy, and so on. Solid foams, dispersions of gas in a solid, are not covered in this statement.

Do you like or hate foams?  For some refiners, in which the through-flow of gas at high temperature, pressure is required to crack hydrocarbons, the gas-liquid mixtures will foam strongly. The foam traps gas with gas fractions of 80% or higher.  Clearly in such situations, in which it is desired that solid catalysts contact liquids, the production of foam is not wanted. On the other hand, there are applications where foams are useful.  For example foams can have a high stress yield  and can be used in a fluid for carrying particles in applications ranging from the transport of cuttings in drilling, to the placement of sands in cracks in oil producing reservoirs, to increasing the conductivity of reservoirs for secondary oil recovery. Obviously, bubble bath and shampoo companies should like to produce appropriate foams for dish and hair washing.  Therefore, technologies which are impacted by foams and foaming are widespread.  And you have to deal with them.

Realistically, foams are not well understood and they are very hard to control.  A foam cannot be created without the vigorous introduction of gas from a bubbly mixture. To understand foaming it is necessary to try to be precise about the critical values of bubble release required to make and maintain a foam.  All liquid/gas foams are unstable, and some are more unstable than others.  The stability of foams is another subject in which our understanding is far from complete. Foams collapse by draining and film rupture. To keep a foam from collapsing it is necessary to oppose the draining by surface tension gradients induced by surfactants.  Therefore, the selection of surfactant through an effective foam testing to design an appealing formulation for the market is critical.

SITA R2000 and its versatile functional modules can help you understand all these important topics with a foam Its fully automated features enable you to measure the foam’s ease of generation, stability, drainage, density, and many other foam properties.  An interfacial rheology device, OCA25+ODG25 and bubble tensiometer SITA T100 will help you identify key factors which play important roles in determining the effectiveness of your formulations.  Speak to our experienced scientists to start making changes for your business.

Cleaning Processes Optimization and Validation

Cleaning Processes Optimization and Validation

There is a tremendous amount of types of industrial parts and surfaces required for cleaning before they become a finished product for users.  All the relevant processes or procedures to respond to the required cleanliness, whether they are chemical or physical methods will be interested in the effectiveness of their cleaning processes and cleaning formulations. The industry which is involved in cleaning process is widespread.

  • Cleaning equipment systems and cleaning reagents for
    1. wet cleaning processes
    2. thermal processes
    3. blasting processes
    4. special processes
    5. mechanical processes
  • Systems for drying processes will need to check on water stains or chemical leftover
  • Processes and systems for corrosion protection and preservation
  • Reagents for corrosion protection and preservation
  • Processes and systems for quality assurance
  • Clean room systems
  • Surface treatment systems
  • Processes and techniques in recycling and disposal
  • Components for cleaning systems
  • On-line automation cleaning systems
  • Cleaning products

SITA CleanoSpector, SITA ConSpector, SITA Cleanline ST, SITA Cleanline CL for direct cleanliness validation and the Dataphysics OCA devices for contact angle measuring are all available for both batch and on-line cleanliness checking to help you maintain and optimize your cleaning requirements.

Enhanced Oil Recovery/Oil Drilling/Petroleum Geology

Enhanced Oil Recovery/Oil Drilling/Petroleum Geology

Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) technologies are used to increase the amount of oil that can be extracted from an existing oil field after the primary and secondary production stages. These technologies play on the physics of how oil is trapped in the rocks and are primarily aimed at either decreasing the interfacial forces holding the oil in pores within the rock formation, reducing the viscosity difference between the oil and water phases, or modifying the reservoir and oil properties to release the oil more easily.

With increasing global energy demand, high-sustained oil prices, aging oil fields and a scarcity of conventional oil discovery, enhanced oil recovery techniques are set to play an increasingly important role in the global oil industry over the coming decades.  Although some short-term downturns occurred through the years, the growth rates and EOR methods employed vary considerably from country to county; a strong growth in oil recovery is still anticipated in each of the three main EOR sub-markets: thermal, gas and chemical.

Application scope for EOR:

-Identify commercially available additives, which are effective in reducing the mobility of carbon dioxide (CO2), thereby improving its efficiency and yield in the recovery of tertiary oil

-The control and/or  reduction in oil saturation  with a waterflood-containing surfactant concentration

-The use of foam to lower the mobility of gases used to displace oil

-Visco-elasticity measurements at varying shear help explain the dramatic change in gas/liquid/oil mobility

-Selection of the added surfactants and water-soluble polymers

-Environmental remedy and protection issues


Our devices which can help: OCA, DCAT, SVT20, ODG25, T100, T15+, etc.

Household Products and Detergents

Household Products and Detergents

Household cleaning products include the following product subcategories: sanitation & janitorial cleaners/cleaning products, industrial/technical cleaners, kitchen & catering cleaning agents, food & dairy processing cleaners, laundry agents, and others. It includes the following end-use applications: industrial, food & lodging, building service contractors, food & drinks, processing units, retail outlets, healthcare facilities, and many others.  Household cleaning products can also be categorized based on their cleaning compounds: bleach, clean chemical, detergent, dishwashing product, disinfectant, general purpose cleaner, laundry detergent, surface active agent, surfactant, etc.  The customers will want cleaning products that are: easy to use and effective, with desirable sensory qualities, stable and easy to store, good value for their money and most importantly, healthy and safe to use.

The purpose of your R&D in household cleaning and detergent products is to create benefits for your end-users because consumers do not just buy products, they buy benefits.

Our devices which can help you improve the product benefits are: OCAs, DCATs, Dynotester, T15+, T100, SVT20, CleanoSpector, ConSpector, On-line Cleanliness Control and Testing Systems, and etc.


Surfactants in Nanotechnology

Surfactants in Nanotechnology

Interest in nano-emulsions has been developing for about 20 years now, mainly for nano-particle preparation.  Not until recent years did direct applications of nano-emulsions in consumer products develops, mainly in pharmaceutical/drug, personal care, health care, agrochemical, film coating, cosmetic, consumable, carbon nano-tubes, and oil industries. Surfactants play major roles to ease the formation of nano-emulsions by lowering the interfacial tension; the Laplace pressure is reduced and hence the stress needed to break up a drop is reduced.  In addition, their self-assembling amphiphilic nature also make surfactants very useful for applications used in many new technology areas.

Nano-emulsions are attractive in various application fields due to the following advantages:

– The very small droplet size causes a large reduction in gravitational force, so Brownian motion may be sufficient to overcome gravity. This means that no creaming or sedimentation occurs on storage.

– The small droplet size also prevents their coalescence, since these droplets are non-deformable and hence surface fluctuations are prevented.

– The significant surfactant film thickness (relative to droplet radius) prevents any disruption of the liquid film between the droplets.

– The large surface area of the emulsion system allows rapid penetration of actives.  Due to their small size, nano-emulsions can penetrate through the rough skin surface and this enhances penetration of actives.

– The fluidity of the transparent nature of the system, as well as the absence of any thickeners may give them a pleasant aesthetic character and skin feel.

– The small size of the droplets allows them to deposit uniformly on substrates; wetting, spreading and penetration may be also enhanced because of the low surface tension of the whole system and the low interfacial tension of the O/W droplets.

– Nano-emulsions can be applied for delivery of fragrant or active ingredients, which may be incorporated in many personal care, food, and medical products. For example, this could be applied in perfumes, lubricants, cutting oils and corrosion inhibitors.

– Nano-emulsions may be applied as a substitute for liposomes and vesicles and it is possible in some cases to build lamellar liquid crystalline phases around the nano- emulsion droplets.

Our devices which can help you in this field are: OCA, DCAT, CMC tool, MS, SVT, DCAT-LBE, SITA R2000, T100, T15+, Dynotester, etc.