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Foam Generation and Stability

Foam Generation and Stability

A foam is a colloidal dispersion in which a gas is dispersed in a continuous liquid phase. Many examples of foams in industry and everyday life can be found easily such as shampoo, bubble bath, dishwater detergent, cleaner, laundry, coffee, beer, beverages, soda, mining process, oil recovery, environment remedy, and so on. Solid foams, dispersions of gas in a solid, are not covered in this statement.

Do you like or hate foams?  For some refiners, in which the through-flow of gas at high temperature, pressure is required to crack hydrocarbons, the gas-liquid mixtures will foam strongly. The foam traps gas with gas fractions of 80% or higher.  Clearly in such situations, in which it is desired that solid catalysts contact liquids, the production of foam is not wanted. On the other hand, there are applications where foams are useful.  For example foams can have a high stress yield  and can be used in a fluid for carrying particles in applications ranging from the transport of cuttings in drilling, to the placement of sands in cracks in oil producing reservoirs, to increasing the conductivity of reservoirs for secondary oil recovery. Obviously, bubble bath and shampoo companies should like to produce appropriate foams for dish and hair washing.  Therefore, technologies which are impacted by foams and foaming are widespread.  And you have to deal with them.

Realistically, foams are not well understood and they are very hard to control.  A foam cannot be created without the vigorous introduction of gas from a bubbly mixture. To understand foaming it is necessary to try to be precise about the critical values of bubble release required to make and maintain a foam.  All liquid/gas foams are unstable, and some are more unstable than others.  The stability of foams is another subject in which our understanding is far from complete. Foams collapse by draining and film rupture. To keep a foam from collapsing it is necessary to oppose the draining by surface tension gradients induced by surfactants.  Therefore, the selection of surfactant through an effective foam testing to design an appealing formulation for the market is critical.

SITA R2000 and its versatile functional modules can help you understand all these important topics with a foam Its fully automated features enable you to measure the foam’s ease of generation, stability, drainage, density, and many other foam properties.  An interfacial rheology device, OCA25+ODG25 and bubble tensiometer SITA T100 will help you identify key factors which play important roles in determining the effectiveness of your formulations.  Speak to our experienced scientists to start making changes for your business.

Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery System

Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery System

Pharmaceutical/drug products, in the form in which they are marketed for use, typically involve a mixture of active drug components and non-drug components, along with other non-reusable material.  Depending on the context, multiple unit dose can refer to distinct drug products, or it can also sometimes refer specifically to the chemical formulation of a drug product’s constituent drug substances and any blends involved.  A crude drug is the substance, obtained from plants or animals, and used to cure, treat, restore an efficient health state, or optimize a curing function.  Dosage form is the crude drug in its final form, after particular characteristics have been added  to it. The drug manufacturing includes addition of additives, i.e., pharmaceutical ingredients.  The additives are mainly non-medicinal substances used for many purposes. They are added to enhance drug form, quality, efficacy for various purposes including but not limited to: solubilizing agents, for dilution, as emulsifying agents, as thickeners, as stabilizers, as preservatives, as coloring agents, as flavoring agents, and so on.  Dosage forms are also the effective means by which drug molecules reach the target site inside the body, to provide their mechanism of actions.  From the drug manufacturing processes, we can conclude the importance of dosage forms for their great necessity in ensuring:

– Optimal action of the drug

– Accurate dose is administered

– Biocompatibility

– Protection from gastric juice

– The drug stability against atmospheric conditions to avoid oxidation or destruction

– A long shelf life for the drug

– Masking unpalatable taste or unpleasant odor

– Sustained or controlled release of the medication

– etc.


Our devices which can help: DCAT, OCAs, SVT20, T100, etc.


Cosmetics and Personal Care Products

Cosmetics and Personal Care Products

The cosmetics/personal care industry develops and manufactures products such as cosmetics, soaps, detergents, and more, which are used for personal hygiene and beautification.  The global beauty market is usually divided into the following main business segments: baby and child care, bath and shower, color cosmetics, deodorants, depilatories, fragrances, hair care, men’s grooming, oral care, toiletries, skin care, and sun care.  These segments are complementary and through their diversity are collectively able to satisfy all consumers’ needs and expectations.

Personal care formulators/chemists work to understand the chemical and physical processes that describe how raw ingredients work, how they affect each other, and how they affect the manufacturing process. They design and manufacture new ingredients or combine and modify existing ingredients in new ways to create new products. Therefore, they need to make sure that desirable properties are maintained when ingredients are changed; they are continually trying to develop better and more cost-effective products.  In product development, cosmetic and personal care formulators need innovative solutions to successfully develop and introduce new products that will deliver tangible benefits to their customers.  FDS/SITA/Dataphysics’ experts are continually seeking new methods to help our customers and new formulators for their following purposes:

– Manage the product development process, from small scale laboratory to pilot plant to commercialization scale

– Monitor potential product formulations for stability over time and under varying levels of light and heat

– Selecting and testing new pigments, herbal and botanical ingredients, while reducing and eliminating e.g., synthetic ingredients and allergens

-Testing potential products for resistance to bacterial growth, settling, separation, agglomeration, coalescence

– Bring products to market faster and with more appeal

Our precision devices which can help you: OCAs, DCATs, SVT20, T100, T15+, Dynotester, etc.