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The electrowetting effect has been defined as “the change in solid-electrolyte contact angle due to an applied potential difference between the solid and the electrolyte”. The phenomenon of electrowetting can be understood in terms of the forces that result from the applied electric field. It is also known that the contact angle supression or saturation phenomenum through voltage can be affected by changing the detailed geometry of the system. It is predicted that in reversed electrowetting, the contact angle can possibly grow with the voltage.
Electrowetting is now used in a wide range of applications from modular to adjustable lenses, electronic displays (e-paper) as well as switches for optical fibers. Electrowetting has recently been evoked for manipulating Soft Matter. Furthermore, filters with electrowetting functionality has been suggested for cleaning oil spills and separating oil-water mixtures. By optically modulating the number of carriers in space-charge region of the semiconductor, the contact angle of a liquid droplet can be altered in a continuous way. This is called photoelectricalwetting and it can be observed if the conductor in the liquid/insulator/conductor stack used for electrowetting is replaced by a semionductor.
High pressure and high temperature applications can easily be found in many areas, from basic and fundamental research to inevitable utilization in oilfields where gas injection, thermal injection, steam flooding and fire flooding technique are applied to enhance oil recovery. Our various chambers, attachable to OCA and DCAT devices are available for temperature control from -30 to 1900C, pressure control from 10E-7 mbar to 750 bars and humidity from 0% to 100%.
Researchers work on proprietary particle coating and surface treatment technology to tailor the surface properties of the nanoparticles. By discreetly encapsulating individual particles with various chemical and physical processes, they are able to meet a customer’s performance requirements by controlling the particle size distribution, ensuring compatibility with the customer’s formulation, and including beneficial additives to control pH or rheology, to name a few. In most instances, it is beneficial to mediate the interface between the nanoparticle surface and the application matrix in which the nanoparticles are to be utilized. For example, for a naturally hydrophilic nanoparticle to be used effectively in non-polar media such as cosmetic oils, the surface of the particle may need to be rendered hydrophobic for uniform dispersion, compatibility, and performance. The proprietary chemistry and process technology used to prepare these dispersions ensures that the customers receive ready-to-use products in which the nanoparticles are stabilized at their primary particle size, with no secondary structure or agglomeration. The purpose to develop an optimized process is to impart a wide range of functionality to the particles, which not only ensures the success in the application but also provides the required flexibility in formulation with their nanoparticles. The effectiveness of these surface treatment and coating processes can be examined, verified and optimized with our precision instruments such as OCA, DCAT, ODG and T-100 on the produced particle samples in either dry powder or pre-dispersed format.
A fine (micro- or nano-patterned) Si-based mold is fabricated by a conventional VLSI process and the mold is directly pressed to a thin glass plate using a hot-press machine. Fabrication of fine grating on a glass surface can be achieved by imprint lithography using a Si3N4/SiO2/Si mold and a low Tg glass. The imprint conditions are designed based on the glass surface property measured under a temperature, humidity or pressure controlled condition. Recently micro-fluidics research will rely on the similar imprint and etching processes to create the desired patterns or channel designs as another example in other modern applications.
FDS/Dataphysics can help in the steps of your VLSI processes
Lithography is used to transfer a pattern from a photomask to the surface of the wafer. The photoresistant coverage and wetting nature on the wafer surface will determine the effectiveness of the partner trafer when exposed to (often ultraviolet) light or another source of illumination (e.g. X-ray). Therefore, the surface preparation of the wafer and selection of photoresistant needs to be checked with a contact angle meter OCA and tensiometer such as DCAT, t15, t100, etc.
Etching is used to remove material selectively in order to create patterns. The selectivity and completeness of the etching are always desired by the process engineers and they can be verified with a contact angle device, OCA.
Deposition- A multitude of layers of different materials have to be deposited during the IC fabrication process. The two most important deposition methods are the physical vapor deposition (PVD) and the chemical vapor deposition (CVD). During PVD accelerated gas ions sputter particles from a sputter target in a low pressure plasma chamber. The principle of CVD is a chemical reaction of a gas mixture on the substrate surface at high temperatures. The need of high temperatures is the most restricting factor for applying CVD. This problem can be avoided with plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), where the chemical reaction is enhanced with radio frequencies instead of high temperatures. An important aspect for this technique is the uniformity of the deposited material, especially the layer thickness. You can use an OCA device to check on the uniformity of the deposited material.
Chemical Mechanical Planarization– Processes like etching, deposition, or oxidation, which modify the topography of the wafer surface lead to a non-planar surface. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) is used to plane the wafer surface with the help of a chemical slurry. First, a planar surface is necessary for lithography due to a correct pattern transfer. The CMP slurry formulations can be optimized with a DCAT tensiometer or a MutiScan and the planarity of the wafer after CMP can be examined with a fully automated OCA50 contact angle scanning and mapping features.
Oxidation is a process which converts silicon on the wafer into silicon dioxide. The chemical reaction of silicon and oxygen already starts at room temperature but stops after a very thin native oxide film. For an effective oxidation rate the wafer must be settled to a furnace with oxygen or water vapor at elevated temperatures. Silicon dioxide layers are used as high-quality insulators or masks for ion implantation. The quality of the formed silicon dioxide can be examined with an OCA25 equipped with a temperature, humidity or pressure chamber.
Ion implantation is the dominant technique to introduce dopant impurities into crystalline silicon. This is performed with an electric field which accelerates the ionized atoms or molecules so that these particles penetrate into the target material until they come to rest because of interactions with the silicon atoms. Ion implantation is able to control exactly the distribution and dose of the dopants in silicon, because the penetration depth depends on the kinetic energy of the ions which is proportional to the electric field. With an OCA25 and one of environmental chamber for either electrical field, pressure, temperature or humidity, you can research for an optimized ion implantation process.
A foam is a colloidal dispersion in which a gas is dispersed in a continuous liquid phase. Many examples of foams in industry and everyday life can be found easily such as shampoo, bubble bath, dishwater detergent, cleaner, laundry, coffee, beer, beverages, soda, mining process, oil recovery, environment remedy, and so on. Solid foams, dispersions of gas in a solid, are not covered in this statement.
Do you like or hate foams? For some refiners, in which the through-flow of gas at high temperature, pressure is required to crack hydrocarbons, the gas-liquid mixtures will foam strongly. The foam traps gas with gas fractions of 80% or higher. Clearly in such situations, in which it is desired that solid catalysts contact liquids, the production of foam is not wanted. On the other hand, there are applications where foams are useful. For example foams can have a high stress yield and can be used in a fluid for carrying particles in applications ranging from the transport of cuttings in drilling, to the placement of sands in cracks in oil producing reservoirs, to increasing the conductivity of reservoirs for secondary oil recovery. Obviously, bubble bath and shampoo companies should like to produce appropriate foams for dish and hair washing. Therefore, technologies which are impacted by foams and foaming are widespread. And you have to deal with them.
Realistically, foams are not well understood and they are very hard to control. A foam cannot be created without the vigorous introduction of gas from a bubbly mixture. To understand foaming it is necessary to try to be precise about the critical values of bubble release required to make and maintain a foam. All liquid/gas foams are unstable, and some are more unstable than others. The stability of foams is another subject in which our understanding is far from complete. Foams collapse by draining and film rupture. To keep a foam from collapsing it is necessary to oppose the draining by surface tension gradients induced by surfactants. Therefore, the selection of surfactant through an effective foam testing to design an appealing formulation for the market is critical.
SITA R2000 and its versatile functional modules can help you understand all these important topics with a foam Its fully automated features enable you to measure the foam’s ease of generation, stability, drainage, density, and many other foam properties. An interfacial rheology device, OCA25+ODG25 and bubble tensiometer SITA T100 will help you identify key factors which play important roles in determining the effectiveness of your formulations. Speak to our experienced scientists to start making changes for your business.
There is a tremendous amount of types of industrial parts and surfaces required for cleaning before they become a finished product for users. All the relevant processes or procedures to respond to the required cleanliness, whether they are chemical or physical methods will be interested in the effectiveness of their cleaning processes and cleaning formulations. The industry which is involved in cleaning process is widespread.
SITA CleanoSpector, SITA ConSpector, SITA Cleanline ST, SITA Cleanline CL for direct cleanliness validation and the Dataphysics OCA devices for contact angle measuring are all available for both batch and on-line cleanliness checking to help you maintain and optimize your cleaning requirements.
Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) technologies are used to increase the amount of oil that can be extracted from an existing oil field after the primary and secondary production stages. These technologies play on the physics of how oil is trapped in the rocks and are primarily aimed at either decreasing the interfacial forces holding the oil in pores within the rock formation, reducing the viscosity difference between the oil and water phases, or modifying the reservoir and oil properties to release the oil more easily.
With increasing global energy demand, high-sustained oil prices, aging oil fields and a scarcity of conventional oil discovery, enhanced oil recovery techniques are set to play an increasingly important role in the global oil industry over the coming decades. Although some short-term downturns occurred through the years, the growth rates and EOR methods employed vary considerably from country to county; a strong growth in oil recovery is still anticipated in each of the three main EOR sub-markets: thermal, gas and chemical.
Application scope for EOR:
-Identify commercially available additives, which are effective in reducing the mobility of carbon dioxide (CO2), thereby improving its efficiency and yield in the recovery of tertiary oil
-The control and/or reduction in oil saturation with a waterflood-containing surfactant concentration
-The use of foam to lower the mobility of gases used to displace oil
-Visco-elasticity measurements at varying shear help explain the dramatic change in gas/liquid/oil mobility
-Selection of the added surfactants and water-soluble polymers
-Environmental remedy and protection issues
For massive part production quantity, and associated surface finishing industries, the name of the game in today’s competitive landscape is speed combined with consistent quality and robustness. The ‘speed’ refers to time-to-market and how early developers can create superior offers to their customers. Any later entrants, are competitors to this first application in market place as consistent challengers. What should they do to get market advantages?
Company failures in supplying consistent parts to satisfy their customers in very competitive and thin-profit markets can cost them their reputation and decrease business success. Therefore, massive manufacturers of original and duplicate parts face economic pressure as they cannot afford manual production and testing resources, while there is an imminent need to reduce the overall handling costs. This scratches the surface in explaining why the automation actually saves you money, time and resources – when an on-line cleaning and testing process is implemented and adopted efficiently.
An automated on-line cleanliness testing capability provides various benefits to auto/metal parts makers; coverage to detect defects and errors immediately and significantly reduces the cost of failure, saves time through its repeatability and early verification, and leverages the improved resource productivity.
A medical device is an instrument, apparatus, implant, in vitro reagent, or similarly related article that is used to diagnose, prevent, or treat diseases and conditions, but does not achieve its purposes through chemical action within or on the body. Medical devices act by other behaviors like physical, mechanical, or thermal means. Medical devices vary greatly in complexity and application. Biomedical device product manufacturing is a long process requiring robust SOPs and guidelines for production. With global competition, the R&D of new biomedical devices is not just a necessity, but is imperative for innovative, up-to-date biomedical device manufacturing companies. The realization of a new design can be very costly, especially with the shorter product life cycle. As technology advances, there is a level of quality, safety and reliability that increases exponentially with market demand.
Scope of medical device and biomaterial research:
Pharmaceutical/drug products, in the form in which they are marketed for use, typically involve a mixture of active drug components and non-drug components, along with other non-reusable material. Depending on the context, multiple unit dose can refer to distinct drug products, or it can also sometimes refer specifically to the chemical formulation of a drug product’s constituent drug substances and any blends involved. A crude drug is the substance, obtained from plants or animals, and used to cure, treat, restore an efficient health state, or optimize a curing function. Dosage form is the crude drug in its final form, after particular characteristics have been added to it. The drug manufacturing includes addition of additives, i.e., pharmaceutical ingredients. The additives are mainly non-medicinal substances used for many purposes. They are added to enhance drug form, quality, efficacy for various purposes including but not limited to: solubilizing agents, for dilution, as emulsifying agents, as thickeners, as stabilizers, as preservatives, as coloring agents, as flavoring agents, and so on. Dosage forms are also the effective means by which drug molecules reach the target site inside the body, to provide their mechanism of actions. From the drug manufacturing processes, we can conclude the importance of dosage forms for their great necessity in ensuring:
– Optimal action of the drug
– Accurate dose is administered
– Protection from gastric juice
– The drug stability against atmospheric conditions to avoid oxidation or destruction
– A long shelf life for the drug
– Masking unpalatable taste or unpleasant odor
– Sustained or controlled release of the medication
Household cleaning products include the following product subcategories: sanitation & janitorial cleaners/cleaning products, industrial/technical cleaners, kitchen & catering cleaning agents, food & dairy processing cleaners, laundry agents, and others. It includes the following end-use applications: industrial, food & lodging, building service contractors, food & drinks, processing units, retail outlets, healthcare facilities, and many others. Household cleaning products can also be categorized based on their cleaning compounds: bleach, clean chemical, detergent, dishwashing product, disinfectant, general purpose cleaner, laundry detergent, surface active agent, surfactant, etc. The customers will want cleaning products that are: easy to use and effective, with desirable sensory qualities, stable and easy to store, good value for their money and most importantly, healthy and safe to use.
The purpose of your R&D in household cleaning and detergent products is to create benefits for your end-users because consumers do not just buy products, they buy benefits.
The cosmetics/personal care industry develops and manufactures products such as cosmetics, soaps, detergents, and more, which are used for personal hygiene and beautification. The global beauty market is usually divided into the following main business segments: baby and child care, bath and shower, color cosmetics, deodorants, depilatories, fragrances, hair care, men’s grooming, oral care, toiletries, skin care, and sun care. These segments are complementary and through their diversity are collectively able to satisfy all consumers’ needs and expectations.
Personal care formulators/chemists work to understand the chemical and physical processes that describe how raw ingredients work, how they affect each other, and how they affect the manufacturing process. They design and manufacture new ingredients or combine and modify existing ingredients in new ways to create new products. Therefore, they need to make sure that desirable properties are maintained when ingredients are changed; they are continually trying to develop better and more cost-effective products. In product development, cosmetic and personal care formulators need innovative solutions to successfully develop and introduce new products that will deliver tangible benefits to their customers. FDS/SITA/Dataphysics’ experts are continually seeking new methods to help our customers and new formulators for their following purposes:
– Manage the product development process, from small scale laboratory to pilot plant to commercialization scale
– Monitor potential product formulations for stability over time and under varying levels of light and heat
– Selecting and testing new pigments, herbal and botanical ingredients, while reducing and eliminating e.g., synthetic ingredients and allergens
-Testing potential products for resistance to bacterial growth, settling, separation, agglomeration, coalescence
– Bring products to market faster and with more appeal
Food texture is one of the major criteria that consumers use to judge the quality and freshness of consumables. When a food produces a physical sensation in the mouth (hard, soft, crispy, moist, dry, etc.), the consumer has a basis for determining the food’s quality (fresh, stale, tender, ripe). A major challenge facing food developers is how to accurately and objectively measure texture and mouth feel. Texture is a composite property related to a number of physical properties (e.g., viscosity and elasticity), and the relationship is complex. Mouth feel is difficult to define. It involves a food’s entire physical and chemical interaction in the mouth. Therefore, it refers to a complex sensory attribute encompassing feeling and trigeminal impulses of texture, heat, coolness, sponginess, lubricity, sliminess, chalkiness, fullness, crispness, flavor, etc.
With the selected ingredients, additives, and flavors in correlation with newly available processing procedures and technologies, food formulators can magically create mouth feels in food products to represent very appealing level of the following characteristics: cohesiveness, density(compactness), dryness, fracturability (crispiness, crunchiness and brittleness), graininess, gumminess, hardness, heaviness, moisture absorption, moisture release, mouth coating, roughness, abrasiveness, slipperiness, smoothness, uniformity(homogeneity), uniformity of bite, uniformity of chew, viscosity, wetness, springiness. etc.
The challenge confronting food designers who want to quantify mouth-feel characteristics using an instrumental technique: How to take instrument readings — measurements of forces, distances, stability, shelf-life, wetting angle, surface energy and surface tension that look like numbers from a physics experiment– and relate them to something meaningful and relevant to what people actually experience when they taste, chew or drink. FDS/SITA/Dataphysics’ application experts can help you with their experiences.
Our precision devices which can help you overcome the challenge are: DCATs, OCAs, RN4.2, LK2.2, T100, T15+, Dynotester, ODG25, SVT20, DCAT-LBE, and many QC tools for hardness, water penetration, tearing strength, freezing test, etc.
Interest in nano-emulsions has been developing for about 20 years now, mainly for nano-particle preparation. Not until recent years did direct applications of nano-emulsions in consumer products develops, mainly in pharmaceutical/drug, personal care, health care, agrochemical, film coating, cosmetic, consumable, carbon nano-tubes, and oil industries. Surfactants play major roles to ease the formation of nano-emulsions by lowering the interfacial tension; the Laplace pressure is reduced and hence the stress needed to break up a drop is reduced. In addition, their self-assembling amphiphilic nature also make surfactants very useful for applications used in many new technology areas.
Nano-emulsions are attractive in various application fields due to the following advantages:
– The very small droplet size causes a large reduction in gravitational force, so Brownian motion may be sufficient to overcome gravity. This means that no creaming or sedimentation occurs on storage.
– The small droplet size also prevents their coalescence, since these droplets are non-deformable and hence surface fluctuations are prevented.
– The significant surfactant film thickness (relative to droplet radius) prevents any disruption of the liquid film between the droplets.
– The large surface area of the emulsion system allows rapid penetration of actives. Due to their small size, nano-emulsions can penetrate through the rough skin surface and this enhances penetration of actives.
– The fluidity of the transparent nature of the system, as well as the absence of any thickeners may give them a pleasant aesthetic character and skin feel.
– The small size of the droplets allows them to deposit uniformly on substrates; wetting, spreading and penetration may be also enhanced because of the low surface tension of the whole system and the low interfacial tension of the O/W droplets.
– Nano-emulsions can be applied for delivery of fragrant or active ingredients, which may be incorporated in many personal care, food, and medical products. For example, this could be applied in perfumes, lubricants, cutting oils and corrosion inhibitors.
– Nano-emulsions may be applied as a substitute for liposomes and vesicles and it is possible in some cases to build lamellar liquid crystalline phases around the nano- emulsion droplets.
Novel nanowires/nanoparticles/colloidal composite particles have great potential in applications such as thermal coatings, paints, inks, papers, adhesives, thin films, novel sensing materials, and hybrid emulsions for imaging or drug delivery. Furthermore, the hierarchical assembly of nanowires, which provide building blocks into different architectures, will surely lead to devices with higher structural complexity and new functionality—used in microelectronics fields such as nanolaser arrays, nanowire arrays as 2D photonic crystals and light-emitting nanowire/polymer composites. This type of assembly is a process that will enable the bridging of the recently discovered nanoscopic world to the existing microscopic/macroscopic worlds. The ability to manipulate these nanoscale building blocks is critical for the future of science and technology development.
The key to the success of nanotechnologies is assembly, namely the art of putting nanostructures xactly where one desires with the necessary connectivity. Nanostructure assembly is challenging because of the incompatibility of pertinent length scales— “nano” versus “macro.” The fluidic assembly scheme has become a popular topic in the R&D community, aiming to explore a sufficient control to allow for the fabrication of simple networks and the macroscopic patterning of nanowires/nanoparticles. The research community must develop generalized assembly techniques that go well beyond current capabilities if nanowires, rods, belts, and tubes are to see widespread technological application in optoelectronics and computing. For example, to arrange vast numbers of 1D nanostructures on solid surfaces is done through Langmuir–Blodgett assembly. In the LB technique, uniaxial compression of a nanowire–surfactant monolayer floating on an aqueous phase causes the nanowires to align and pack over a large area. The aligned monolayer can then be transferred to a solid surface. Repeated transfers of different types of nanowires can produce functional nanowire lattices.
Interfacial transport phenomena are of specific importance in the applications of multiphase fluid systems (complex fluids-suspensions, dispersions and colloids), which possess a large specific surface. Microscopically, the formation of long-range ordered structures inside the created thin films has many implications of both fundamental and practical significance. Applications of interfacial transport phenomena can be found in many areas: separation processes such as distillation, flotation, and liquid membranes; concerns of processing, flow and stability of emulsions, foams and particle dispersions; ink-jet printing; paints/coatings; wetting; etc. To understand the dynamic process of lamination or multi-layering, which rearranges microstructures in sub-micron thin liquid films, can serve as an important tool for probing the long range interaction forces in concentrated particle suspensions and colloidal dispersions. The dynamic surface tension and dynamic viscosity (including linear and non-linear interfacial viscoelasticity) are crucial in knowing their creation, characteristics and stability for such systems of containing layered films.
The team of FDS/Dataphysics/SITA is a unique one in the market, with in-depth experience not only in surface science and interfacial rheology but also in manufacturing precision tensiometers and rheometers (we are not depending on external licensing as others) .
Interfacial phenomena are significant factors that affect the adsorption of active ingredients such as: drugs onto solid adjuncts in dosage forms, penetration of molecules through all kinds of membranes, emulsion formation and stability, and the dispersion of insoluble particles in liquid media to form suspensions. Interfacial phenomena are also important in the characterization of materials and reagents during their development, formulation and manufacturing. For example, the biochemical activity, adsorption, disintegration, dissolution and bioavailability of a drug may depend on the surface property of the molecule. The interfacial properties of a surface active agent lining the alveoli of the lungs are responsible for the efficient operation of this organ, just one of many applications to mention. The interface existing between matters in nature are basically categorized into four interactions: liquid/liquid, liquid/vapor (gas), solid/vapor and solid/liquid.
In coating and adhesion/bonding operations, it is vital that the adhesive and paint are applied in the correct locations and spread over properly treated surfaces to achieve needed coverage and bond. Poor formulations and incorrectly applied adhesive/paint can weaken the bond and undermine the coating effect. Hardening of the adhesive( the so called shark skin of the coating) can be done through cooling, drying or curing reactions, prior to bonding and surface formation; overspreading or over-absorption into permeable materials can weaken the subsequent joint and adhesion. The techniques for characterizing the properties of surfaces and formulations that influence the interactions between the substrate and adhesive/coating during the bonding and surface finishing processes are critical. These methods include substrate wettability and surface energy, surface absorbency, surface receptivity and modification, application and spreading monitoring. Good wettability of a surface is a prerequisite for ensuring good adhesive bonding and surface finishing. In the meantime, some important issues need to be focused on developing a better formulation for a liquid adhesives and coating include: enhancing dispersion – maximizing pigment coverage; increasing solubility – increasing component loading; and reducing viscosity – reducing mixing requirements, enhancing flow-ability and wetting.
The team of FDS/SITA/Dataphysics can help you with our years of application experiences not only in surface treatment and verification, but also the dynamic processes of applying your adhesives and coatings to any surface.
Functional surface modification is used to modify the surface of a material by bringing about desired physical, chemical or biological characteristics, different from the ones originally found onto the surface of a material. The modification can be done by different methods by altering a wide range of characteristics of the surface, such as: roughness, hydrophilicity, surface charge, surface energy, biocompatibility and reactivity to suit for any specific purpose. The industrial fields where the surface modification techniques are being used, are in the automotive, aerospace, missile, power, electronic, biomedical, textile, petroleum, petrochemical, chemical, steel, power, cement, machine tools and construction industries. Surface modification can be used to develop a wide range of functional properties, including physical, chemical, electrical, electronic, magnetic, mechanical, wear-resistant and corrosion-resistant. Sterilization in health industry, self-cleaning surfaces and protection with biofilms at the required substrate surfaces including almost all types of materials, such as metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites by coating with similar or dissimilar materials.
If your interest falls in this category, then we can help you with our experience and precision devices.
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